The Department of Minerals and Energy is responsible for ensuring exploration, development, processing, utilisation and management of South Africa's mineral and energy resources. As the country's economy continues to grow, energy is increasingly becoming a key focus. The Electricity and Nuclear Branch is responsible for electricity and nuclear-energy affairs, while the Hydrocarbons and Energy Planning Branch is responsible for coal, gas, liquid fuels, energy efficiency, renewable energy and energy planning, including the energy database. Energy policyThe DME's Energy Policy is based on the following key objectives: •Attaining universal access to energy by 2014; •Accessible, affordable and reliable energy, especially for the poor; •Diversifying primary energy sources and reducing dependency on coal; •Good governance, which must also facilitate and encourage private-sector investments in the energy sector; and •Environmentally responsible energy provision. Estimates suggest that R107-billion will be needed between 2005 and 2009 to meet South Africa's growing energy needs. Eskom will invest R84-billion over the next five years. The balance of R23-billion is reserved for independent power producer (IPP) entrants. By May 2005, the department was in the process of procuring 1 000 megawatts (MW) through Independent Power Producers (IPPs), which are expected to be commissioned in 2008. The refurbishment of three power stations - Camden in Ermelo, Grootvlei in Balfour, and Komati in Middelburg - will result in an additional 3 800 MW to the system. Eskom will spend about R12-billion on the recommissioning of these stations. This is about 40 percent of the cost of a new station. About 10 percent of the costs will go towards improving environmental performance such as particulate emissions and water controls. At least 36 000 jobs are expected to be created, directly and indirectly, until 2007, during both construction and operational phase activities.